Hongkong Land

Real estate developer
(Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Hongkong Land Holdings Limited
Traded as
  • SGX: H78
FounderSir Paul Chater
Jardine, Matheson & Co.
c/o 8th Floor, One Exchange Square, Central, Hong Kong Island
Hong Kong[1] (Bermuda domiciled)
Key people
  • Ben Keswick (Chairman and Managing Director)
  • Robert Wong (CEO)
  • Property development
  • Property management
RevenueUS$2.67 billion (FY 2018)[2]
Net income
US$1,036 million (FY 2018)[3]
Total assetsUS$38 billion (31 Dec 2018)[4]
Number of employees
2,090 (31 Dec 2018)[5]
ParentJardine Matheson (50%)
SubsidiariesMCL Land
Footnotes / references
Underlying profit attributable to shareholders – US$1,036 million (FY 2018)[6] and gross assets excluding cash – US$38 billion (31 Dec 2018)[7]
Hongkong Land
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu PinyinZhìdì Kònggǔ Yǒuxiàn Gōngsi
Yue: Cantonese
Jyutpingzi3 dei6 hung3 gu2 jau5 haan6 gung1 si1
Landmark Atrium, property owned by Hongkong Land in Central

Hongkong Land (HKL) is a property investment, management and development group with commercial and residential property interests across Asia. It owns and manages some 850,000 sq. m. of office and retail property in Asia, principally in Hong Kong and Singapore. Its Hong Kong portfolio represents some 450,000 sq. m. of commercial property, making it the single largest landlord in Central, Hong Kong. [8] In Singapore it has 165,000 sq. m. of office space mainly held through joint ventures. While its subsidiary MCL Land is a residential developer. Hongkong Land also has a 50 per cent interest in World Trade Center Jakarta, an office complex in Central Jakarta that it shares with the Murdaya family (owner of Pondok Indah)'s Central Cipta Murdaya Group and a number of residential and mixed-use projects under development in cities across Greater China and Southeast Asia - including WF CENTRAL, a luxury retail centre in Wangfujing, Beijing.[9]

Hongkong Land was founded in 1889. Hongkong Land Holdings Ltd is incorporated in Bermuda. It has a standard listing on the London Stock Exchange as its primary listing and secondary listings in Bermuda and Singapore.[citation needed]The Group's assets and investments are managed from Hong Kong by Hongkong Land Limited. Hongkong Land is 50 per cent owned by Jardine Matheson Holdings.


Presence in Hong Kong

Hongkong Land is the single largest landlord in Central, Hong Kong. [8] In recent decades, the company focused on upgrading its commercial buildings in Central. In 2003, the redevelopment of Swire House into the new Chater House was completed. Major renovations have since been carried out in the Prince's Building. The Landmark has also been redeveloped, with the Landmark Mandarin Oriental Hotel and York House added. Hongkong Land has also redeveloped The Forum, the retail block at Exchange Square, into a 5-story office block, which is wholly leased to Standard Chartered Bank.

In early 2012, a new brand "LANDMARK" was launched covering the company's four most famous shopping destinations The Landmark, Alexandra House, Chater House and Prince's Building, which are linked by pedestrian bridges, part of the Central Elevated Walkway. It was accompanied by a new logo "L", representing LANDMARK and luxury retail.

The company has also developed three luxury residential buildings on Hong Kong Island in recent years, namely Serenade, The Sail at Victoria and Ivy on Belcher's.[citation needed]

In October 2006, Hongkong Land hosted the CENTRAL Rat Race for the first time in the heart of Central, which has since become an annual event. This charity relay event helps raise funds for MINDSET, a registered charity supporting mental-health related organisations and projects in Hong Kong and mainland China. The inaugural race raised over HK$2 million and as of 31 December 2015, some HK$25 million has been raised.[10]

Footprint in the rest of Asia

Hongkong Land has expanded its business outside Hong Kong in recent years, and has significant interests across Asia, mostly in a joint venture with local developers, including the Keppel Group in Singapore, the CIFI Group in Shanghai and the Longfor and China Merchants groups in Chongqing.

In its commercial portfolio, in Singapore, it has an attributable interest in some 1.8 million square feet of commercial space. Following One Raffles Link, the company developed One Raffles Quay, its second commercial complex in Singapore, in the Marina Bay area. It also has a one-third interest in the Marina Bay Financial Centre which was completed in 2012. The company owns a 50% stake in Jakarta Land, which is expanding its complex of World Trade Center Jakarta in the central business district of Jakarta. Hongkong Land also owns interests in the Gaysorn Village in Bangkok, developed the WF CENTRAL shopping centre in Beijing, Exchange Square in Phnom Penh, and two office buildings in Hanoi. In Macau, Hongkong Land has developed One Central Macau in a joint venture with Shun Tak Holdings. This is a major mixed-use development on the waterfront comprising luxury residences, a retail development, the Mandarin Oriental Macau hotel and residences managed by the hotel. Hongkong Land is currently developing The former British Embassy Site in Bangkok with Central Group, a commercial complex in Xinjiekou, Nanjing, and mixed-use waterfront development in Xuhui, Shanghai.[citation needed]

Hongkong Land is also active in the residential markets across Southeast Asia. Hongkong Land has a 100% interest in MCL Land, a Singapore residential developer active also in Malaysia. Hongkong Land is also developing residences in Indonesia, the Philippines, Vietnam and Thailand.[citation needed]

Hongkong Land has also developed residential properties and mixed-use projects in mainland China. In Beijing, there are residential projects such as Central Park and Maple Place. Hongkong Land has more than 10 developments in Chongqing, such as Yorkville, Bamboo Grove and Landmark Riverside. In Chengdu, it is developing WE City, a mixed-use residential and commercial development. In Shanghai, Hongkong Land has developed Parkville in Pudong, Shanghai, for residential and commercial use.[11] The company has recently entered Nanjing, Hangzhou and Wuhan to develop residential/mixed-use properties.[citation needed]



Hongkong Land was formed on 2 March 1889 and was initially named The Hongkong Land Investment and Agency Company Limited. It was founded by two businessmen in Hong Kong — Sir Paul Chater and James Johnstone Keswick. Besides property, Chater was also known for his interests in brokerage and bullion while Keswick was Tai-pan of Jardine, Matheson and Company Limited.

Chater had been lobbying for some time in government circles for a new reclamation project in the Victoria District in Central Hong Kong and the construction of a new Praya along the harbour front. Six days after the formation of Hongkong Land, he got his way. The reclaimed land was to yield an area of 65 acres (260,000 m2) of building land some 250 feet (76 m) wide along a new waterfront road that came to be known as Chater Road. This "Central Reclamation" has since become a core element of Hong Kong's Central District, forming as it does the land between today's Des Voeux Road Central and Connaught Road Central, including Statue Square and Chater Road itself.

The four-storey New Oriental Building was the first commercial building on the Central Reclamation built on Marine Lot 278 at No. 2 on the then newly formed Connaught Road and completed in 1898.[12] This building was demolished in the early 1960s and the site is today occupied by the AIA Central building. The Chater Road reclamation can thus be seen as the starting point for Hongkong Land's development of "Central" as Hong Kong's business district.

Early years

Following the construction of The New Oriental Building, between June 1904 and December 1905, Central saw the completion of five major buildings that were Hong Kong's first 'skyscrapers'. These included the Alexandra Building in 1904, which was built on the location of today's Alexandra House.

By 1941 the company possessed 13 properties in Central. One of the most notable among them was Marina House, Alexandra Building, Holland House, Queen's Building and Prince's Building.[citation needed]

Hongkong Land ceased business for three years and eight months during the Second World War. But when the company reclaimed its office buildings in September 1945, they were all in good structural condition.

The first post-war project came in 1947, adding three more floors to the five-storey Marina House. Then came the redevelopment of 11 and 13 Queen's Road Central into the nine-storey Edinburgh House, which was completed in 1950. These buildings stood on the sites of today's Edinburgh Tower and York House.

At the same time, three old buildings on a triangular site formed by Des Voeux Road, Chater Road and Ice House Street — Alexandra Building, Royal Building and Chung Tin Building — were demolished to make way for the 13-storey Alexandra House.

1960s and 1970s

By the mid-1960s, Hongkong Land owned nine office blocks as well as the shopping complex in Prince's Building and The Mandarin Hotel. These were connected by the first pedestrian bridge. Since then, Hongkong Land's buildings have been linked to one another, forming a network of commercial buildings.[citation needed]

During the 1970s, the company began investing in international markets, building a portfolio of properties in Australia, Hawaii, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand.[citation needed]

The Group Chief Executive Vernon Robert's leadership during this period was the construction of the Connaught Centre. On 1 June 1970, the company paid a then world-record price of HK$258 million at a public auction for an important new central reclamation site.[citation needed] On completion in 1973, the 52-level, 696,000 square feet (64,700 m2) Connaught Centre was Hong Kong's largest and most advanced office block.[citation needed] It was renamed Jardine House on 1 January 1989.

Redevelopment during the 1970s of Hongkong Land's "Central" portfolio began with the demolition of Alexandra House and the construction of what was to be the third building to bear that name on the site. The 36-level project, which was finished in 1976, was joined by Prince's Building, Swire House, The Mandarin Hotel and Connaught Centre by overhead walkways. Today, it forms a footbridge network connecting Hongkong Land's commercial portfolio.

Hongkong Land developed residential properties in mid-levels, including May Tower in 1974 and Branksome in 1976. The company also acquired a tract of land in Pok Fu Lam and started construction of the Chi Fu Fa Yuen complex. This consisted of 20 towers with 4,258 flats, along with a shopping centre, restaurants and recreational facilities.[13]

1980s and 1990s

The 1980s saw Hongkong Land diversify from its usual property interests, as it bought significant shareholdings in Hong Kong Telephone Company Ltd and Hong Kong Electric Holdings Ltd.

In 1982, Hongkong Land acquired the last major site available in Central with a bid of HK$4.7 billion and began construction of the first phase of Exchange Square.[citation needed] It was the largest commercial complex in the territory at the time and the most technologically sophisticated.[citation needed]

The year 1982 saw the property market in Hong Kong plunge dramatically,[citation needed] and in the following two years, rentals halved.[citation needed] This was a period of financial difficulty for Hongkong Land as it looked to reorganise itself and reduce its debt burden through asset disposals and restructuring measures.[citation needed] Hongkong Land sold its international properties as well as its non-core assets in Hong Kong, including its interests in Hong Kong Telephone and Hong Kong Electric. But its core assets in the heart of Central were left untouched.

In 1984 the property market began to look up again and in late 1985, Hongkong Land completed and opened the first phase of its new flagship property, One and Two Exchange Square. In 1988, the final third phase of Exchange Square was completed and The Forum was opened.

The Landmark was completed in two phases in 1980 and 1983. It comprised two 47-level office blocks, Gloucester Tower and Edinburgh Tower, and a large five-level shopping podium.

During the 1990s, Hongkong Land continued to enhance its core commercial office portfolio in Hong Kong, while beginning to look at investment opportunities in other Asian cities.

In Hong Kong, Central office space supply increased substantially in the late 1990s and in 1997 the company launched the redevelopment of Swire House, now named Chater House, as a world-class building in the heart of Central.

In Singapore, the company began the construction of One Raffles Link, an office building in the centre of the city that was an early example of sustainable construction. The building was completed in 2000.


Investment Properties

Hongkong Land is a major landlord in the Central Business Districts of Hong Kong, Singapore, Jakarta and has a presence in other Asian cities, including:

Hong Kong
One Central Macau

World Trade Center Jakarta

Phnom Penh

West Bund Site, Xuhui, Shanghai

In addition, Hongkong Land has several hotel interests, namely The Landmark Mandarin Oriental Hotel and Mandarin Oriental Wangfujing, Beijing.

Development Properties

Hongkong Land has a significant residential property development business in Asia focusing on developments for sale for the high-and-luxury end of the market, through wholly owned or joint venture projects. Examples of recent residential projects completed or being developed are:
Hong Kong











The Philippines





  1. ^ "Hongkong Land". www.hkland.com. Archived from the original on January 31, 2009.
  2. ^ "Hongkong Land 2018 Annual Report P.20" (PDF).
  3. ^ "Hongkong Land 2018 Annual Report P.3" (PDF).
  4. ^ "Hongkong Land 2018 Annual Report" (PDF).
  5. ^ "Hongkong Land 2018 Annual Report P.32" (PDF).
  6. ^ "Hongkong Land" (PDF). www.hkland.com.
  7. ^ Hongkong Land 2018 Annual Report p.22
  8. ^ a b Auto, Hermes (2021-09-15). "Hong Kong Central's biggest landlord signs crypto firm as tenant for first time | The Straits Times". www.straitstimes.com. Retrieved 2022-05-19.
  9. ^ [1] 2014 Annual Report, P.1
  10. ^ "CENTRAL Rat Race official website".
  11. ^ "Hongkong Land" (PDF). www.hkland.com.
  12. ^ "2 Connaught Road / New Oriental Building [1898-c.1955] | Gwulo: Old Hong Kong". gwulo.com.
  13. ^ Chan, Chi-kau, Johnnie Casire, "Community development and management of private sector housing estates in Hong Kong" Archived 2013-10-24 at the Wayback Machine, University of Hong Kong, August 1995
  14. ^ "Press Release re EXCHANGE SQUARE, Cambodia" (PDF).
  15. ^ "Hongkong Land's webpage on Central Avenue, Chongqing".
  16. ^ "Hongkong Land's webpage on Anandamaya Residences".
  17. ^ "Hongkong Land's webpage on Nava Park".
  18. ^ "About Northpine Land".
  19. ^ "MCL Land official website". Archived from the original on 2015-06-28.
  20. ^ "Press Release re The Nassim" (PDF).

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hong Kong Land.
  • v
  • t
  • e
Singapore Selected FTSE STI companies of Singapore
correct as of 3 January 2022